Library > Name > Testate Amoeba

Testate amoeba

This testate amoeba has contracted its pseudopods inside its shell and remains still.


Commentary by Prof. Yuji Tsukii, Hosei University
The shell surface of the Arcella (testate amoeba) is generally smooth, but in this video, various particles seem to be attached to the surface. Also, the position of the pseudostome (opening) in this organism is not at the exact center of the body. If it were, the organism might be a different kind of testate amoeba other than Arcella.

Sampling Date : 03 July 2009

Sampling Site : Hirose River B  Google Map

Journey of amoeba with particles

A hidden amoeba extends several slender pseudopodia from behind the end of one particle. As the amoeba comes to other particles, it extends pseudopodia from behind the one of particle. As the amoeba never shows itself completely, we cannot recognize where it is. In the meantime the amoeba and several particles begin journey to another place together with a colony of flagellates.


Commentary by Prof. Yuji Tsukii, Hosei University
Two types of amoeba take turns appearing in this video.

The first one is Vexillifera.

http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB/Im.....

The second one, which is in a shell covered with black particles, may be Diaphoropodon.

http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB/Im.....

Diaphoropodon is characterized by fine spiny projections on the surface of its shell, but to see these projections clearly requires higher magnification and resolution.

Sampling Date : 09 August 2009

Sampling Site : Hirose River B  Google Map

Encountering of two different amoebae I

Here a large amoeba is actively hunting and catching food one by one. After a while, a different amoeba appears in our field.


Commentary by Prof. Yuji Tsukii, Hosei University
The first amoebae to appear may be Vexillifera or a floating Vannella.

http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB/Im.....

http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB/Im.....

Amoebae appearing later may be Diaphoropodon, which is in a shell covered with black particles.

http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB/Im.....

Diaphoropodon is characterized by fine spiny projections on the surface of its shell, but to see these projections clearly require higher magnification and resolution.

Sampling Date : 09 August 2009

Sampling Site : Hirose River B  Google Map

Encountering of two different amoebae II

Two kinds of amoebae of different size and shape are coming in contact with each other, and then move away.


Commentary by Prof. Yuji Tsukii, Hosei University
The amoebae shown in the upper part of the video may be Vexillifera or floating Vannella.

http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB/Im.....

http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB/Im.....

The amoebae appearing later may be Diaphoropodon, which is in a shell covered with black particles.

http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB/Im.....

Diaphoropodon is characterized by fine spiny projections on the surface of its shell, but to see these projections clearly requires higher magnification and resolution.

Sampling Date : 09 August 2009

Sampling Site : Hirose River B  Google Map

Gliding amoeba

An amoeba is gliding smoothly across the glass slide under the microscope. The rim of its body is transparent, but the center of its body is filled with food and slightly rigid. Although it doesn't extend pseudopods, food particles enter its body as the amoeba moves over them. A diatom is temporalily captured, but manages to escape.


Commentary by Prof. Yuji Tsukii, Hosei University
This organism is a species of testate amoeba called Cochliopodium.

http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB/Im.....

The shell of this organism is like an upside-down plate, but as the shell is thin and transparent, its exact shape is difficult to see in ordinary observation.

When the organism detaches from the surface to float freely, the side view and shell shape become visible

http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB/Im.....

Sampling Date : 09 August 2009

Sampling Site : Hirose River B  Google Map

The test of Arcella

After being collected from a paddy field, the sample was put on 1% agar plate with a drop of distilled water and kept for a few days.

Based on the color and shape of the test (shell) in this video, it looks like it belonged to an Arcella, but the shell is empty now.


Commentary by Prof. Yuji Tsukii, Hosei University
For identification of Arcella to the species level, the side view of its test (shell) must be examined. The key characteristics are: (a) the ratio of the test diameter to height; (b) the ratio of the test diameter to the pseudostome (mouth) diameter; and (c) whether the test surface is smooth or depressed. Identification is difficult because this video does not show the side view of the test. But since several parts of the test appear depressed, the organism is most likely Arcella gibbosa.

http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB/Im.....

Sampling Date : 16 October 2006

Sampling Site : KASHIMADAI paddy field  Google Map

Arcella from a paddy field

After being collected from a paddy field, the sample was put on 1% agar plate with a drop of distilled water and kept in the dark for 4 days.

In the first scene of this video, a testate amoeba Arcella is moving slowly among aggregates. In the second scene, the amoeba notices a green organism that comes near. In the last scene, the Arcella has caught the green organism and is consuming it. Unfortunately, the video did not film the moment of capturing the organism.


Commentary by Prof. Yuji Tsukii, Hosei University
This large amoeba with a disk-shaped shell (test) and thick pseudopodia is a testate amoeba called Arcella.

http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB/Im.....

As the several parts of its comparatively high shell appear depressed, the organism is most likely Arcella gibbosa.

http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB/Im.....

But, as the depression in the underside of the shell is not so clear, it might also be Arcella vulgaris.

http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB/Im.....

The green organism that approaches belongs to genus Trachelomonas, because it is surrounded by a shell (lorica) and exhibits characteristic locomotion. Trachelomonas is also characterized by a red eyespot in its cytoplasm.

Newly formed shells of trachelomonas are transparent and gradually become reddish-brown. As this organism has a transparent shell, it has probably just divided.

http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB/Im.....

The organism might be Trachelomonas crispa, but we cannot see the long, spiky spines surrounding the opening where the flagellum extends, which are a characteristic feature of Trachelomonas crispa.

Another possibility is that the organism belongs to genus Strombomonas. However, the opening (outlet) for the flagellum of Strombomonas is characterized by a narrower structure like a bottleneck. Therefore the organism may be Trachelomonas rather than Strombomonas.

http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB/Im.....

Sampling Date : 22 September 2006

Sampling Site : KASHIMADAI paddy field  Google Map

The test of Arcella

After being collected from a paddy field, the sample was put on 1% agar plate with a drop of distilled water and kept in the dark for 4 days.

Sadly, the Arcella in this video is no longer alive, and only its empty test (shell) remains.


Commentary by Prof. Yuji Tsukii, Hosei University
This organism is definitely Arcella gibbosa.

http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB/Im.....

This cell is already dead and only the test (shell) is left. The tests of Arcella gibbosa are thick and have several depressions.

Sampling Date : 22 September 2006

Sampling Site : KASHIMADAI paddy field  Google Map